How should Africa engage strategically with China to take maximum advantage of the opportunities and confront the challenges posed by the rapidly expanding economic role of China in Africa? That was the key research question of the recent AERC China-Africa project. The studies focused on trade, investment and aid. African countries should establish trade complementarities with China and seek to establish a trade agreement with preferential market access to China. In order to gain preferential access to the Chinese market, African countries should leverage Chinese FDI. This should go along with the implementation of export promotion policies and programs necessary to increase and retain competitiveness of manufactured exports.