Presented at the Pro-Poor Urban Development: China and Africa Workshop, Nairobi, 07/30/2012. Guizhou province is located in the Southwest of China, with a population of about 35 million. One third live in cities and towns. Guizhou is a mountainous province. The gross area is 167,000 km2, which accounts for 1.8% of China’s land mass. It is a multinational region with 18 minority nationalities that make up about 39% of the total population. Guizhou is an underdeveloped province in China. The 2010 GDP ranks the sixth lowest. Meanwhile the per capita GDP ranked lowest, even 20% lower than Yunnan, which ranked second lowest. The rural poverty rate in Guizhou is significant. There are 11,490,000 living in poverty (with an income of 1 dollar or less a day), making up 9.4% of the nation’s poor population, and 33.8% of the whole population in Guizhou. In addition, peasants’ income ranks lowes in Southwest China. 50 out of the 88 counties are national level poverty-stricken counties, with an area of 117,000 km2, or 65% of the province. Most of them are included in the 14 concentrated poorest areas as defined by the central government.